Gender Differences in Risk Factors for Adolescent Binge Drinking and Implications for Intervention and Prevention
In addition, although gender differences in medication treatment effectiveness among adolescents are unknown (180), among adults, men have better treatment outcomes to pharmacologic treatment for alcohol use than women (181–183). Thus, if these gender differences are similar in adolescents, adolescent males may particularly benefit from pharmacological treatment compared to females. Racial, ethnic, and gender differences in alcohol use also emerge during this period (see Table 1). Second, although a majority of prevalence studies have disaggregated binge drinking rates by gender, many studies of predictors and consequences of binge drinking have not. In some cases, studies have focused only on men or only on women, whereas other studies sampled both males and females but did not conduct or report gender-specific analyses. Multiple gender-specific studies worldwide have shown that smoking is strongly related to both men’s and women’s binge drinking, typically showing stronger connections for women than for men.
According to the dual systems model, although the striatum matures more quickly than the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in females, it is also suggested that females undergo more extensive maturation in the PFC compared to the striatum in both humans (49, 113) and animals (48, 114). This sex-specific trajectory highlights how females develop greater levels of inhibitory control and lower peak levels of sensation seeking compared to males (53). With respect to gender differences, there is evidence for diff-erences in mesocorticolimbic activity, which may lead to differences in binge-like alcohol use.
What’s in the drink
Between 40% to 80% of people who continue to drink heavily will not survive more than 10 years after receiving this diagnosis. However, even reducing your drinking to light or moderate levels is better than continuing to drink heavily. Your outlook may also improve depending on other treatments you receive, such as medication or surgery. This https://ecosoberhouse.com/article/how-long-does-alcohol-stay-in-your-system-blood-and-urine/ condition tends to be worse the more you drink and/or the longer you were a heavy drinker. Other health problems you have can also affect your case, especially if those problems have any connection with alcohol use. This usually involves certain types of medications that treat heart rhythm problems or other symptoms of heart failure.
- Binge drinking (BD) is a major public health concern, and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the biological and social consequences of BD compared to adults (1).
- So, smaller people usually have a higher ratio of alcohol in their blood if they drink the same amount a heavier person drinks.
- It was reported in several longitudinal studies that heavy drinking in adolescence could potentially lead to overweight or obesity in adulthood [62, 63].
- These include using recreational drugs (especially those that affect your heart, such as cocaine) and tobacco (which has major negative effects on your heart, lungs and circulatory system).
Moreover, among females who began drinking in adolescence, those who continued drinking in adulthood showed high levels of depression during adolescence relative to those who stopped abusing alcohol (31). In addition to females’ greater vulnerability to stress and internalizing symptoms, females may also be more prone to BD following trauma. The initial search yielded a number of studies that focused on gender differences in adolescent BD regarding consequences of drinking differential effects and consequences of BD across males and females [see Ref. (36–39) for reviews]. Furthermore, a number of studies reported on BD prevention and intervention, but few focused on gender differences in BD treatment. Therefore, in the sections that follow, we report on identified literature but also incorporate findings from other studies related to problem alcohol use in order to inform potential gender differences in these areas.
How to take care of myself and manage my symptoms?
Though they aren’t causes of alcohol-induced cardiomyopathy, other lifestyle choices can make it worse. These include using recreational drugs (especially those that affect your heart, such as cocaine) and tobacco (which has major negative effects on your heart, lungs and circulatory system). While alcohol-induced cardiomyopathy comes from long-term alcohol abuse, there’s no universal limit or number that means you’ll develop it. However, researchers have pinpointed certain behaviors that make it more likely you’ll develop this condition.
Instead, we expected the data to reflect neural responsivity as indirect measures of emotion processing and/or emotion regulation to a variety of emotionally salient stimuli. Social norms regarding drinking, or rather, individuals’ perceptions of peers and others’ BD, also influence one’s own drinking behavior. Descriptive norms refer to beliefs about the prevalence of BD among peers while injunctive norms pertain to the perceived social pressure to conform and engage in BD with other peers (137). Social drinking norms are largely dependent on cultural context, and although the majority of studies have examined social drinking norms using US college samples (137), there are some studies that have examined this phenomenon in other areas across Europe (18, 143, 152, 153).